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TechPosts help build competencies in construction projects for complex business environment supported by professional project management approach, and enhancing construction project management with wisdom, knowledge, good practices, tools & techniques, supported by HSSE (Health Safety Security Environment), TQM (Total Quality Management) and Emotional Intelligence principles. SK Saxena PMP

Wednesday, July 28, 2021

Project Management Office (PMO) for Projects Success



A project management office (PMO) in an organization, sets, maintains, and ensures standards and good practices for project management across the organization. The PMO is part of the organization for Portfolio, Program and Project management. The PMO may be an external office also depending upon the need of the organization. It helps project units through its supportive, directing and controlling roles.


Project Management Office (PMO) for Projects Success


Organizations having Project Management Office (PMO) are more successful in completing their projects as PMO provides necessary directions / support to ventures involved in a project.  

 

Associations / organizations have their continuous business tasks. To maintain the continuity of operation, and to fulfil the business needs, the necessary changes are taken up to compete the market and as such, this need give rise to some advancement / modification, by taking up small medium or big projects.

Depending upon the magnitude of the needs the projects are managed by project manager, program manager and portfolio manager in the Project Management Office, (PMO) of the organization.





 PMO is a main impetus behind Project Management, Program the executives, Portfolio Management, and other hierarchical administration rehearses. The Project Management, Program management, Portfolio Management and other management units have the governance directions for units, but PMO works beyond this by its Supportive, Controlling and Directive roles for alignment of the business strategy with project operations.

 

It trains the people, provide necessary tools and techniques, audits and inspect, monitors, guides information management system and communication of the projects. It acts as a central unit for project execution and controls so that the project activities are aligned to project needs and all projects work on same guidelines and specifications etcetera.

 


PMO Facilitates Various Ventures of Organization.

It creates / develop knowledge base of lessons learnt, the best practices in use, procedures and policies, standards, and shares with all project managers.

It trains the people, provide necessary tools and techniques, audits and inspect, monitors, guides information management system and communication of the projects. It acts as a central unit for project execution and controls so that the project activities are aligned to project needs and all projects work on same guidelines and specifications etcetera.

 

PMO Role in Organization

 

PMO

Action Area

Role

Involvement

Role description

Project Management, Program Management, Portfolio Management

Supportive

 Low level

Creating/developing/managing /sharing best practices, policy guidelines, procedures, methods, documents, trainings, PMIS and monitoring the above activities

Controlling

Middle level

Directive

High level

 

 In its supportive role, the PMO apprises the project managers and their teams about all support measures required (from inside and outside environment) so that PM is aware of necessary guidance to align the project to organization’s needs. PMO role is of low status and purpose is to facilitate and support the project as asked.

In controlling role, the PMO starts exercising control on the activities of the project. Suggest necessary need-based guidance, tools and techniques. The role of PMO as such becomes prominent and it therefore monitors the situation of the project closely. It is middle level role of PMO.

In directing role PMO is much involved in the project management processes and therefore it is responsible for the project outcome also.

 

Role Description

The scale of PMO activities depends on the size and type of organization. However, some of the supportive / coordinating / controlling actions that are provided by PMO are as given below.

 

  • PMO's most important function is to standardize and optimize project management processes and tools.
  • Provides required assistance to project 
  • PMO provide supporting tools and techniques and training for providing uniformity in actions
  • Provide IT Solutions and support
  • Resource Coordination for all managers of Projects Managers for resources, finances, risks, procurement, and communications 
  • Reports and Information on Projects and Portfolio 
  • Aligns the project units with the OPA (Organizational Process Assets) and EEF (Enterprise Environmental Factors)




Tuesday, July 27, 2021

Role of Project Manager



Role of Project Manager


The project Manager (PM), as the name suggest is assigned for managing the project, 

which is temporary endeavour, taken by the organization for meeting the challenges of 

market, (business needs), the customer needs, and the needs of technological changes, legal 

aspects, environment concerns etcetera. The role of PM depends upon the type of project 

and the organization.

 

The very important person for linking project, its management, management of the business objectives and the customer or sponsor need, is the Project Manager. (For more understanding please follow PMI - PMBOK Guide— www.pmi.org.


PM talent triangle suggested by www.pmi.org. clearly define the role abstract of the Project Manager .




 

PM is a professional who manages the project.

Wikipedia defines professionals as follows:

A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of education and training that prepare members of the profession with the knowledge and skills necessary to perform their specific role within that profession. In addition, most professionals are subject to strict codes of conduct and ethics. PMI provide professional certificate covering these aspects.

The managers utilized the skills and experience, tools and techniques, in the processes, to complete the work in past projects, and in doing so they were recognized for their efforts, and as such they became professionals

 



Project Manager -  Role

(Project Manager - the one individual who has the administration information in a more extensive region however may not be excessively profound)

 

Your working environment is yours. There ought to be aggregate endeavours to oversee.

 

Each work environment has program, portfolio, and undertaking of the board. Your organization is workplace, and so is your home to take up program, portfolio, and project to consolidate and develop a platform for achieving the goals and the missions.

 

The aggregate endeavours are to be done from various levels in the association. Total Quality People (TQP) assume a significant part in the association.

 

However, recall that too many cooks spoil the broth. The one individual who is assigned to deal with the working environment is the Task Supervisor, or Manager, or Project Manager, or Project Chief (herein after shall be called Project Manager - PM)

 

He utilizes his abilities, instruments and procedures and experience and the help of individuals, to carryout activities sensibly with his IQ and EI.  (Intelligent Quotient and Emotional intelligence)

 


On the off chance, that you are not an undertaking administrator, or you are project supervisor, in the two cases there is need to work with  synergy.

 Let us to investigate the task of Project Manager in a nutshell.

It has been noted that in the organizations, this post is designated to a person based on his   participatory technical support or as per seniority list. And most of the time it is seen that he is very qualified person with in depth knowledge in some knowledge areas. Such person is not the right person assigned at a job of project manager. The Project Manager should be a generalist having knowledge of project works, including technical, social, commercial, and environmental aspects. He may have not in-depth knowledge, but have wide knowledge in the application   area, along with use of tools and techniques, experience, good interpersonal skills with good communication abilities. He should be supported by specialist members in the team in the various operations of the project.

 

The project manager should place a plan for execution only after it is agreed with the stakeholders.

 

Those who plan do better than those who do not plan, even though they rarely stick to their plan, 

   Winston Churchill

 


Project Boundaries

The role of project manager is discussed in above context, inside the boundary of the project and beyond the boundary of project.






The boundary of venture begins from project inception and finishes at project closure. That is, he starts, plans, executes, controls, and closes the task. (Inside Boundary)

Before this boundary is sponsor of the task or business need for which project / venture has begun. Additionally, past the inside boundary of this venture is the client or end user, for whose requirements fulfilment, the project is taken up.

 

As such PM is answerable for finishing of the project to the sponsor and the end user.

 He should know about inside environment of the project and the external environment of the project and should be equipped for experiencing the pressing factors from the inside and outside, for project execution.

 

Project Management Institute is a pioneer organization in giving PMP accreditation, worldwide and is must for project manager who need to dominate in project execution field— www.pmi.org


The PM should work within  the boundary of project and pay close attention to the outside boundary of the project for the points mentioned  underneath for project completion.

 Political Environment

 Financial Environment

 Stakeholder Management

 Business Needs of Sponsor

 Project Initiation, Planning, Execution, Monitoring and Control and           

Closing the project related to inside boundary of the project.

Integration of, Scope, Schedule, Cost, Quality, Resource, Communications, Risk, Procurement, and Project Stakeholder plan.

Client Satisfaction 

Technology change

Artificial Intelligence 

Water, Land Environment  

Legal Necessities and Enforcement


The tasks are small, huge, complex and they might be situated at places near the organization and away from the organization, at far off places or in different nations.

 

The role of project manager subsequently shifts relying on the size of the task. In this way, PM may fill in as expediter, as facilitator or as committed undertaking supervisor, depending on the volume of work and significance of work.

 

 PM is principally answerable for the execution of the venture, from commencement of the undertaking to closure of the venture, yet according to business need, might be given task outside the boundary of the project.




 

Information, abilities and Tools and Techniques currently should be applied on a more extensive region past the project limits to comprehend the external necessities and adjust them to within project environment.

The project inside environment is especially impacted by the external climate. Fundamentally, all the venture arranging depends on external stakeholders needs.

 

To comprehend the external necessities in a superior manner, the project manager can adjust them in the venture improvement measures and the outcome will be as per the general inclination of the client, and stakeholders.

 

In managing an equilibrium with inside and outside the limit of the project, the PM and his group ought to associate the external conditions routinely and notify them with the impact on project, so that the project dynamics are utilized to manage the changes.

 

All kind of issues ought to be get recorded according to their seriousness and maintained in issue logs.

 

Project Manager should oversee number of exercises inside the limit and outside the limit of the venture. The inner climate has its own set principles, determinations and systems and work process is smooth. PM should ensure it.

 

The external environment (outside the project limit) of the venture is additionally set with strategies, methods, and rules to facilitate the project execution environment.

 

PM should comprehend and examinations the changes, get significant data and manage the arrangements in bearing the disturbance and save the project from the outside pressures.

 

The task requires managing individuals and the correspondence with them. Relational abilities are significant in managing them. It simply is not getting mindful of these abilities, but the significant perspective is to utilize this expertise. 

Following skills may help him in organising project activities in a better way.

 





What's more, last say is that PM should utilize his IQ and EI to be effective in his activity’s management of the project and its improvement. EI is very useful delicate ability for improvement of individual and the group


The Project and The Project Manager

 The Project and The Project Manager






(Project Manager - the one person who has the management knowledge in a wider area but may not be too deep about the project)

 

Ultimately the project Manager is responsible for all team actions and their proper execution from project initiation to project closing

 


What does project mean ?

 

The business directory meaning of the project is described as below:

Project - an individual or collaborative enterprise that is carefully planned to achieve an aim in a defined period. A project is a task that requires a lot of time and effort.

A project / venture is a progression of activities or steps that can be taken to accomplish an end. A project is viewed as complete after fulfilment of required operations in the venture life cycle.

 

Project Attributes:

The project has a beginning and the end

It is temporary.

It delivers products, services, and results.

The project deliverables may be tangible or intangible.

The project is unique. No two projects are similar. 



A project is a temporary endeavour with a beginning and end. It is unique and delivers goods services and results.


The venture or project is a business need and is executed for the important necessity and in various environment (political, social, ecological, environment etcetera).

Projects have their origin centuries back and remains of these projects still can be seen.

Let us not forget the wonders of world - the old and the new, which were the projects and were managed.

Today projects  are defined considering the knowledge and experiences of the past supported by the required education.

Knowledge, skills, and Tools & Techniques of the project manager and his team  becomes the main power to manage the project and as such the project team must be judiciously placed .
















To understand the outside needs in a better way, the project manager can align them in the project development processes and the result shall be to the satisfaction of not only the customer, but all the stakeholders.

The project team headed by the project manager, use required inputs and tolls & techniques for getting the right process output as elaborated in model below.




 


Your workplace is yours. There should be collective efforts to manage it.

Every workplace has program, portfolio, and project management. Your organization is workplace and so is your home to take up program, portfolio, and project to consolidate and develop a platform for achieving the goals and the missions.

The collective efforts are to be done from different levels in the organization. Total Quality People (TQP) play an important role in the organization.

But remember too many cooks spoil the broth. The one person who is designated to manage the workplace is the project manager.

 




Project Manager


He uses his knowledge, skills, tools and techniques and experience and the support of the people to carryout operations judiciously with his IQ and Emotional Intelligence.

 If you are not a project manager or are project manager, in both cases there is need to understand both aspects.

 

Let us explore the project manager in brief.

 

The Project Manager

The very important person for linking project, its management, management of the business objectives and the customer or sponsor need, is the Project Manager. (For more understanding, please follow PMI - PMBOK Guide— www.pmi.org.


The project Manager (PM), as the name suggest is assigned for managing the project, which (project) is temporary endeavour, taken by the organization for meeting the challenges of market, (business needs), the customer needs, and the needs of technological changes, legal aspects, environment concerns etcetera. The role of PM depends upon the type of project and the organization.

 


Sharing of experiences / knowledge and good practices


He must maintain a cordial atmosphere in dealing with the profession and have a desire, direction, dedication and discipline for the profession so that he may ultimately get the reward for his skills, knowledge, tool a and techniques require for successful completion of professional job.

 

“A true professional not only follows but loves the processes, policies and principles set by his profession.” 
― AMIT KLANTRI

  

Sometimes senior person or specialist of the organization are appointed to takes over the responsibility. Such person may not be fruitful unless he cashes the opportunity given with his will power and using both the IQ and the Emotional Intelligence. But it is not desirable to do so.

A professional should be appointed with wider work area knowledge of all the subjects, may be in little depth. Project Manager, if selected because of his knowledge, tools and techniques, skills and their application, and to the satisfaction of organization, may ultimately be responsible for success or failure of the project.

Project manager must use both art (the use of Emotional Intelligence) and science of management (the use of work-oriented IQ) to manage his work.


“Management is, above all, a practice where art, science, and craft meet.” –  Henry Mintzberg

Tasks of Project Manger

The task of project manager is to plan the project for various needs (Knowledge Areas) and sequentially following the project management Process Group information as given below in the matrix.

 


 

 

In nutshell, the project manager with his team must align  the project requirements with Knowledge Areas, Process Groups and Processes to complete the project.

 

 

 


पूर्णतावाद पर काबू पाना Overcoming Perfectionism

 

पूर्णतावाद पर काबू पाना   

Overcoming Perfectionism



 

पूर्णतावाद व्यक्ति में एक व्यक्तित्व विशेषता है। व्यक्ति को पहले अपने भीतर पूर्णतावाद को समझना चाहिएऔर पूर्णतावाद के प्रकार को दूर करना चाहिए। व्यक्ति को अपने भीतर पूर्णतावाद को स्वीकार करना चाहिए और उसे दूर करने की इच्छा होनी चाहिए। पूर्णतावाद को नियंत्रित करने के लिए सुझाए गए उपायों पर समर्पण और अनुशासन के साथ आवश्यक दिशा-निर्देशों को लागू करने की आवश्यकता है। और धैर्य रखेंक्योंकि परिवर्तनों को प्रबंधित करने में समय लगता है।

 

परफेक्शनिस्ट चाहता है कि काम शुरू होने से पहले चीजों को एक निर्धारित क्रम / क्रम में किया जाए। इस दृष्टिकोण के बादकाम में देरी हो सकती है या बिल्कुल भी पूरा नहीं हो सकता है और समय और लागत बढ़ सकती है। सही बात यह है कि कार्य को शुरू किया जाए और निष्पादन प्रक्रिया के दौरान आवश्यक परिवर्तनों का प्रबंधन किया जाए।

 

पूर्णतावाद आपका friend नहीं है।

यह सफलता की राह में रोड़ा है।

पूर्णतावाद एक बाध्यकारी विकार में बदल सकता है (एक मजबूत इच्छा जिसे नियंत्रित नहीं किया जा सकता)

 

यदि आप पूर्णतावाद के साथ संघर्ष करते हैंतो यहां कुछ रणनीतियां दी गई हैंजिनका पालन करके आप प्रगति के रास्ते में पूर्णतावाद से बचना सुनिश्चित कर सकते हैं।

 

  

आपके कार्यस्थल पर गुणवत्ता प्रबंधन प्रणाली के कार्यान्वयन जैसे मात्रात्मक पहलू सराहनीय हैं, लेकिन कार्यान्वयन पूर्णतावाद के लक्षणों के बाद नहीं किया जाना चाहिए। व्यावहारिक, सक्रिय रहें और पूर्णतावाद पर नियंत्रण रखने के लिए और अंततः अच्छी गुणवत्ता वाले आउटपुट के लिए भावनात्मक रणनीति का उपयोग करें।

 

पूर्णतावाद नियंत्रण के लिए रणनीतियाँ

Strategies for Perfectionism Control

 

 नकारात्मक कथित प्रभाव के साथ पूर्णतावाद कार्यस्थल पर आपकी परियोजना के निष्पादन को प्रभावित कर सकता है। ऐसे मामलों में कुछ रणनीतियों को अपनाने की जरूरत है। यहां कुछ सुझाव दिए गए हैं।

 

पूर्णतावादियों के सुझावों का सटीक मूल्यांकन करें।

Have an accurate assessment of the perfectionists’ suggestions.

 

आप एक परियोजना का प्रबंधन कर रहे हैं। परियोजना प्रबंधन अवधि के दौरान आपने परियोजना टीम के परामर्श से विभिन्न ज्ञान क्षेत्रों की सावधानीपूर्वक योजना बनाई है। आपने एक अच्छी शुरुआत की है क्योंकि इसमें निष्पक्षता है।

परियोजना में सभी प्रकार के हितधारक हैं। वे पेशे की किसी भी धारा से हो सकते हैं। परियोजना के चालू चरण में, हम परियोजना की चल रही गतिविधियों या परियोजना पर आलोचना सुनते हैं।

 आप हितधारकों को परियोजना प्रबंधन में उपयोग करने के सही तरीकों पर उनकी टिप्पणी से नहीं रोक सकते। वे सभी प्रकार के अगर और लेकिन डालते हैं और उनके अगर और बट परियोजना निर्माण के लिए की जा रही कार्रवाइयों पर पूर्णतावाद के इर्द-गिर्द घूमते हैं।

क्या आप हितधारक की सलाह पर परियोजना के क्रियान्वयन पर पुनर्विचार करेंगे? परियोजना निष्पादन के संबंध में आपको परियोजना टीम और प्रमुख सकारात्मक हितधारक की भागीदारी के साथ एक मूल्यांकन करने की आवश्यकता है और उस पथ और कार्यों का पता लगाने का प्रयास करें जिस पर आप परियोजना लक्ष्य प्राप्त करने के लिए आगे बढ़ रहे हैं। यदि सब कुछ ठीक है - आगे बढ़ें और पूर्णतावादी हितधारकों को प्रबंधित करने के प्रयास करें।

आपको इन पूर्णतावादियों का प्रबंधन करना चाहिए।

संसाधनों का सही उपयोग करें।   Properly utilize the resources.

 

अच्छे काम करने के लिए जाओ। प्रत्येक गतिविधि में पूर्णतावाद से बचें। अपनी ऊर्जा का उपयोग करके देखें कि आप अपने संसाधनों का कितना बेहतर उपयोग कर सकते हैं।

जो किया गया है उस पर ध्यान दें और कार्य योजना में सुधार करें।

एक परियोजना गतिविधियों का एक समूह है। एक राज्य में प्रत्येक गतिविधि को पूरा करने पर जोर दें ताकि आप अन्य गतिविधि शुरू कर सकें। यह फोकस होना चाहिए, कि परियोजना को पूरा करना। प्रत्येक गतिविधि के सफल समापन के बाद, सकारात्मक रूप से अपने आप को सुझाव दें और टीम के साथ कार्यों का आनंद लें।

गलतियों से सबक। Learn from Mistakes.

 

अपनी गलतियों को दूसरों से छुपाना दो गुना कार्य है।

आप इसे सामान्य तरीके से कार्य करने के लिए सही नहीं कर रहे हैं - (वह तब है जब यह सभी को पता है।)

आप अपनी पूर्णतावाद दिखाना चाहते हैं और खुद पर जोर देना चाहते हैं।

दोनों ही मामले हानिकारक हैं। गलतियाँ और असफलताएँ परम गुण हैं और उन पर काबू पाने से परम सफलता मिलती है। हर गलती या असफलता आगे बढ़ने की एक नई दिशा प्रदान करती है। तब से सीखो; उन्हें मत छिपाओ।

 

तुलना करें, कनेक्ट करें। Do not Compare, Connect.

 

अपनी गतिविधि के परिणामों की दूसरों के साथ तुलना करें। उनके कथित सर्वोत्तम कार्यों का पालन करके उनके साथ जुड़ें। यह आपको आगे की दिशा में आगे बढ़ने में मदद करेगा और आपको निराश करेगा ताकि आप बेहतर प्रदर्शन कर सकें।

विलंब से बचें। Avoid procrastination.

 

विलंब करना - (खुद को उन चीजों को करने के लिए राजी करने में परेशानी जो आपको करनी चाहिए या करना चाहते हैं।)

आपने अपने काम को पूर्णतावाद के लिए एक्टिन लाइन निर्धारित किया है, लेकिन कार्रवाई प्रक्रिया के दौरान, यदि कोई नई या समानांतर कार्रवाई की आवश्यकता है, तो आप इसकी तुलना आपके द्वारा पहले से तय किए गए पूर्ण कार्य से करने की कोशिश करते हैं। और इस तरह विचार प्रक्रिया कार्य करने के लिए कम हो जाती है और विलंब का परिणाम होता है। विलंब से लड़ने का सबसे अच्छा तरीका परिवर्तनों को स्वीकार करना और उनका प्रबंधन करना है।

 

ऊपर बताए गए कुछ बिंदु पूर्णतावादी दृष्टिकोण के दुष्परिणामों को सुधारेंगे (पूर्णतावाद तनावपूर्ण है और हमें अपने बारे में बुरा महसूस कराता है।)

 

Summery Tips to Avid Perfectionism

पूर्णतावाद से बचने के लिए सारांश युक्तियाँ

 






तैयार संदर्भ के लिए पूर्णतावाद पर काबू पाने की युक्तियों का सारांश नीचे दिया गया है।

 

 

 

*    स्वयं को समझने के लिए अपने बारे में ताकत, कमजोरियों, अवसरों और खतरों का पता लगाएं।

*    खुद को स्वीकार करें और कमियों के लिए खुद को प्रेरित करें। दूसरों पर ध्यान केंद्रित करने के बजाय, खुद को जानें।

*    अपनी ताकत और कमजोरियों के संदर्भ में खुद की तुलना दूसरों से करें। दूसरों से अपनी तुलना करने के बजाय अपनी कीमत जानें।

*    अपनी खामियों का अनुभव करें और परिणामों में सुधार करें।

*    सकारात्मक रहें और टीम की तरह काम करें। टीम वर्क सफलता के लिए परम है।

*    सकारात्मक रहें और नकारात्मकता को समझें और उसका मुकाबला करें। अपने नकारात्मक विचारों को चुनौती दें।

*    अपने काम के मील के पत्थर की योजना बनाएं और उन्हें प्रबंधित करें। असफलताओं पर काबू पाना परम सफलता प्रदान करता है।

*    निराशा और निराशा से बचने के लिए कार्यस्थल पर अपने मानकों को स्थापित करने में सर्वोत्तम प्रथाओं का पालन करें। अपने कार्यों के लिए उच्च मानक स्थापित करने से बचें- (अपने लक्ष्यों को प्राप्त करना आसान बना देगा और आप एक संतुष्ट व्यक्ति होंगे)

*    अवास्तविक अपेक्षाएं स्थापित करने से बचें - (आप बिना तनाव के वास्तविक दुनिया में रहेंगे)

*    संचार एक महत्वपूर्ण पहलू है और सही प्रक्रिया का पालन करना सुनिश्चित करता है।

*    प्रत्येक ऑपरेशन को आवश्यक सुधार के प्रावधान के साथ, एक अच्छे आउटपुट के लिए सही प्रक्रिया, उपकरण और तकनीकों और इनपुट के साथ किया जाना चाहिए।

*    कार्यस्थल पर कठोर और तेज संचालन नियमों से बचना चाहिए।

*    निगरानी और नियंत्रण और प्रतिक्रिया सीखने के लिए अच्छे हैं। समान कार्यस्थल संचालन के ऐतिहासिक पहलू को समझना भी उतना ही अच्छा है।

*    आत्म-आलोचना और खुद को डिमोटिवेट करने के बजाय असफलताओं और कष्टों का सामना करने के लिए कार्य करें। जान लें कि कोई भी व्यक्ति पूर्ण नहीं होता है। ऑटो खुद को विपरीत परिस्थितियों का सामना करने का सुझाव देता है

*    अपनी योग्यता पर ध्यान दें न कि उपलब्धि पर, परिणाम पर ध्यान केंद्रित करने के बजाय प्रक्रिया का आनंद लें।

*    अपने होश को साफ रखें और आगे बढ़ें। सभी को खुश करने की कोशिश करने के बजाय, अपने प्रति सच्चे रहें।

*    अपने कार्यस्थल के कार्यों को करने में दृढ़ रहें। यदि आप नहीं हैं, तो आप जरूरतों और आवश्यकताओं को मार रहे हैं, और यह टीमों के उत्पादन को प्रभावित करेगा।

*    अपनी खामियों पर शर्मिंदा होने के बजाय, अपने अपूर्ण स्व से प्यार करें।

 




Understanding’ Project Management Body of Knowledge’ (PMBOK Guide 7th Edition)

  Understanding’ Project Management Body of Knowledge’ (PMBOK Guide 7 th Edition)      SK Saxena PMP PMBOK  गाइड  7 वें   संस्करण   को   सम...